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Literature / T / Zinaida Tulub

Zinaida Tulub

Ukrainian writer Zinaida Pavlovna Tulub was born 16 (28) November 1890 in Kiev in a family Pavel Alexandrovych (1862 1923) and Elizabeth Vasilivna Tulub (1866 1934). The family was of Ukrainian origin (grandfather of the writer Alexander Danilovich Tulub at one time belonged to Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood, and Zinaida was very proud of him).

But this family was of Russian culture. Her father wrote poetry in Russian. Future writer's parents were acquainted with Russian writers Ivan Bunin and Alexander Kuprin. After graduating in 1913 Kiev Higher Women Courses, Zinaida try her hand at literature: writes Russian poems and stories. These poems, as researchers say, were strongly influenced by poetry I. Bunin. In 1914 she met Maxim Gorky, who gave her efficient help in literary work. These contacts continued until the death of Gorky.

Creativity of Zinaida Tulub clearly divided into three stages.

To the 1st stage belongs juvenilia works in Russian, written before the revolution of 1917. Now these works are completely forgotten.

Ukrainian national-liberation revolution 1917 1922 had a decisive influence on human destiny and creativity of Zinaida Tulub. She goes into Ukrainian language and recreate herselves to conscious Ukrainian and Ukrainian writer who has enriched our literature works of permanent value. Soviet power never pardone this her act.

Second stage of her work falls on the 1926 1937 years. The most important work of this period a historical novel "Lyudolovy", devoted to the history of Ukrainian Hetman Petro Konashevich Sagaydachny. The first volume of novel was published in 1934, the second in February 1937.

It was truly happy for our literature, that the second volume novel managed to see the light and thus preserved. July 4, 1937 criminal Bolshevik authorities arrested Zinaida Tulub (and we know that the manuscripts of arrested were destroyed often).

Accused her that she "is active in counter-revolutionary organization "Election Center, which carries out blasting before the next elections to the Soviets". Of course, an organization which scary thought! exercised a constitutional right of citizens to elect and be elected, existed only in chekists' account (which later criminals from power found by themselves).

But then, in 1937, criminal Soviet authorities treated the matter more than seriously. The sentence was issued 05 Sep 1937 by the highest judicial authority the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR (why civilians judged in military court, we do not know): Z. P. Tulub condemned to 10 years in prison and five years of exile, with confiscation of all her property.

So the Soviet authorities deal shortly with a woman who venture to become from Russian citizen of Ukrainian.

Up to 1939 Z.P.Tulub was imprisoned in a prison in Yaroslavl; in 1939 1947 was on the Kolyma, in the village Susuman. In 1947, when ten-year prison term ended, she was moved into exile to Dzhambul district of Almaty region (Kazakhstan).

But here in the vast steppes beyond Ural the Soviet government did not forget about deliberate Ukrainian: May 16, 1950 Special Meeting at the Ministry of State Security of USSR condemned she to a new exile, this time to the village of Novo-Suhotyno (now City Tayynsha) of Kokchetav region (Kazakhstan).

There she stayed until 23 Jun 1956, when the same military college of the same criminal USSR Supreme Court rehabilitated Z. P. Tulub from both sentences "in the absence of a crime".

Of course, this formula was not in the actions of Z.P.Tulub neither in 1937 nor in 1950 nor in any of those 20 years that she was in captivity. But the Soviet government was interested not in the mythical "crimes", but in the destruction of Ukrainian intellectuals.

Third period of Z. P. Tulub's creativity began in 1956 when she returned to Kyiv and renewed her membership in the Writers' Union.

This period includes two versions of the novel "Lyudolovy" related to reissue 1957 and 1958, and work on a new historical novel "In the vast steppe beyond Ural" (1959 1962) devoted to the fate of Taras Shevchenko.

Zinaida Tulub died September 26, 1964 in Irpin house of creativity, buried in Kiev at Baykove cemetery.

Thus, despite the efforts of almost twenty years, the Soviet authorities never managed to squeeze out of Zinaida Tulub any work that would magnify the Communist Party and its Leninist Central Committee and happy kolkhoz-sovkhoz life of Ukrainian people.

Artworks

Songs of naiad: Poetry Kievskie vesti, 1910, April 18.

Lyrics of my youth: a collection 1910.

The old Edda: translation of the first song. 1910.

Salome: poem. 1914.

At the crossroads: lead 1916.

The port: lead 1917 1918.

Pythagoreans: poem. 1917.

Ilya Muromets: play in verses. 1919 1920.

Translations of French writers in Russian. 1920-th.

Translations of J. Kachur, G.Epic, I. Senchenko, V. Kuzmich, H.Kosynka, Y. Yanovsky into Russian 1920-th

John of Vurtemberg: script 1920-th

Haydamaky: script 1920-th

Sahaidachny: script 1920-th

Kidnappers (Lyudolovy): a historical novel 1931 1937 (1 ed.), 1957 (2 ed.), 1958 (3rd, final version)

In the vast steppes beyond Ural: a historical novel 1962

Kobzar and Yakin: script 1960-ies.

Magical clew: tale-lead 1960-ies.

Biographical materials

Kovalenko B. Kommunist, 1935, August 23 [review on novel "Lyudolovy"]

Tulub Z. I'll never delete it [Gorky] image. Literary Almanac, 1936, 30 June [memories of contacts with Gorky].

Savchenko Y. Wrecking affair. Literary Almanac, 1937, 17 July [rabble-rousing review of novel "Lyudolovy", published two weeks after the arrest of the writer]

"Do not let me die in exile". Literary Ukraine, 1990, 29 November [Address of Z.P.Tulub to M. S. Khrushchev, 12 May 1956]

Tulub Z. Autobiography. Written by 04 Mar 1957, stored in the collection of writer in Taras Shevchenko Institute of Literature.

Tulub Z. Story of my life. Ukraine: Science and Culture, 1991, pp. 350 366.

Tulub Z. My life. Memories, in full, not published.

Literature about the life and work

Sirotyuk M.I. Zinaida Tulub: literary-critical essay. K.: 1968.

Avrahov T.G. Zinaida Tulub centenary: history lessons. Ukrainian language and literature at school, 1990, 11, pp. 67 69.

Dziuba I. The glorious epic Zinaida Tulub ["Lyudolovy"]. Word and Time, 1990, 11, pp. 43 46.

Soroka M. On the threshold of death: the 100 th birthday Z. Tulub. Knowledge and Work, 1990, 11, pp. 16 18.

Hnatiuk M.M. Roman and biography: "Lyudolovy" by Z. P. Tulub. K.: Naukova Dumka, 1994 79 pp.

Halytskaya L. . North Kazakhstan. 2008. 17 October.

Nikolai Zharkikh, 28 May 2010.

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