This monograph examines the texts and research practices of leading 19th and 20th century Ukrainian historians and the reception of their work. It includes the multi-volume histories of the late-enlightenment and early-Romantic historians Dmytro BantyshKamensky, Mykola Markevych, Mykhailo Maksymovych, Mykola Kostomarov, Panteleimon Kulish, the early positivists Volodymyr Antonovych and Mykhailo Drahomanov, Mykhailo Hrushevs’ky’s «critical positivist» sociology, and, the neo-romantics Viacheslav Lypyns’ky and Stefan Tomashivs’ky. It then covers Hrushevs’ky’s work in Soviet Ukraine and the work of Ukrainian historians Mykhailo Slabchenko, Oleksander Ohloblyn and Matviy Yavors’ky. The impact of western European sociology and anthropology is traced in Borys Krypnytsky’s post-war publications. Finally the book reviews the 1960s Soviet Ukrainian «reformist» writings of Fedir Shevchenko and Olena Kompan. The book seeks to demonstrate that changes in methodologies and broader cultural currents did not appreciably change the idea that the history of the territories on both sides of the Dnieper constituted a single continuous Ukrainian history from earliest times.