V. I. Melnikov
Despite the entire complex of the widely known external and internal contradictions and conflicts, such as principal disagreements with science and with a common sense itself, to some extent the phenomenon of religion continues to play one of the key roles of a considerable (if not to say overwhelming) part of the globe. According to some data approximately 75-80% of the population are believers, and according to the data of archeology and paleontology the history of religion is approximately 150-200 thousand years old [35, 71].
Public and political situation, moral and spiritual climate of many public groups and the entire countries, psychological and physical health and behavior of many people and social groups, relationships between states as well as the whole system of governance of our civilization as a whole are influenced by religion.
In spite of its oppressive, suppressing and regressive role in the history of science , personality and society, in the course of many thousand years religion has not lost its viability and is still called for by separate people, church communities and entire states.
Such an ineradicable demand is caused by the ability of religion to be a moral and spiritual shield, a support in difficult times for some people, power for the other, and both support and power for the third. Though these shield and support are possibly mythical, they still assist millions of people. Religion can create a sense of unity with coreligionists, supplement life with sense and satisfaction. Religion is possibly one of the most important spontaneous formations of mankind, a peculiar artificial defense cover of a human being during survival in a hostile environment. A golden dream of religion has proven to be a peaceful back-water in which anyone can be covered from worldly storms and global cataclysms to some extent.
Such possibilities of religion result from its essence that is grounded upon the principle of faith as well as upon peculiarities of its structure and functioning. At present time religion is a difficult, extremely variable in its form and initial doctrine, considerably diversified historically and territorially spiritual, ideological many-layered structure that exists in a close connection with an external world, though leads its own life according to its own laws.
To get to know these laws means to explain, and probably to foresee, even to influence present and future contradictions, opposition and conflicts, or, in general, – the condition of public consciousness and behavior of billions of people, and hence the entire states. To rule these laws means to prevent large bloody inter-confessionary and inner-confessionary conflicts that create breeding ground of tension both on the territory of some countries and in a global scale as well. Religious fanaticism and terrorism have turned into one of the main problems of mankind.