V. I. Melnikov
Let’s define the main notions, which describe ACS and its interdependencies:
1. The object (or definition) of the study – is any relatively stable in a particular accepted characteristics’ interval part of the world, regardless of the nature, type of characteristics or features. This conception includes both nature area and society’s or thinking area. The only one characteristic of the object’s study is its state and possibility to influence the other objects, hence possibility of its revealing, description and research. The object, beyond its existence interval, can be transformed into another relatively stable object possessing the other existence interval, where object’s existence interval is its parameter’s range allowing to determine it as a particular object. Any single object or the system can serve as a research object, and any system can be presented as a set of subsystems of a random hierarchical level etc.
Any material formation, a particular parameter or a material object’s or process indicator, state of any object or system, universal proposition or a particular decision, concrete or abstract conception or definition can serve as a research object. In general everything that arises in a particular moment of time as an object and that can change or vanish when the conditions change can serve as a research object. Interrelation and interdependency of one object and the other objects and systems is an obligatory condition of segregation of any object. The conception of a research object is determined by the goal of the research. The examples of the research of such general concepts and material objects and systems as states as health, happiness, religion, mathematical equation etc. are presented in cl. 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 4.2. For example, should a goal of the research be a state of happiness, the object of the research should be psychic and emotional area of a human being’s activity. In case a goal of the research is a state of health of the object, his/her anatomic and physiological systems should be used as a research’s object (see cl. 2.7, 2.8).
2. System – is a research object of states consisting of a particular variety of the interconnected in a particular way parts, each of them can in its turn consist of the other parts’ variety of a random hierarchical level; they can be reviewed as separate objects of research possessing their own goals.
3. Absolutely Closed (isolated) System is a system, which is not connected and interfered with other objects or systems, and doesn’t change them or change itself. ACS doesn’t reproduce (and doesn’t get from outside) any energy, matter, information, doesn’t create external fields etc. ACS doesn’t disclose itself for other objects or systems, it doesn’t exist for others, and it’s an absolute zero. Real objects and systems couldn’t be ACS, because they transfer outside an information about themselves and have external characteristics. Strictly saying ACS is and ideal abstract notion and couldn’t be studied, because it’s impossible to study nothing. That’s why it’s impossible to avoid certain admissions, such as getting information from the system. For the most practical problems with little information errors it is possible to present ACS as complex of two or more objects or systems, which influences of one another are equal and opposite. ACS can be formed by any object or system by joining all external associated with it parts, objects or systems. ACS in this theory plays the same role as an absolute zero of temperatures in thermodynamic, zero and infinity in mathematics etc. ACS is central fundamental category of TCS and plays the role of common integrative universal principle equitable for all objects and system in nature. At the same time ACS contains formal inner contradiction, as the “system” itself is already a certain structure, transferring some information about itself outside, it influences someway the external receiver of information. But it’s an unavoidable admission of the highest order of trifle, because the ideal ACS in its full meaning is nothing and it’s impossible to operate it during the description and investigation. ACS is a formal, abstract category, and, as it will be shown below, is needed for building absolute accurate and not contradiction picture of the world or some part of it. In further the indication ACS will be used when only informational interaction is neglected.
The ACS notion or literally saying “nothing” is closely connected with the problem existence – non-existence – nothing. But in this context nothing appears not as antipode of existence or being, but as central fundamental notion, needed for the building and accurate and quantitative description of any world system (or any existing object), nothing doesn’t deny the existence, but proves it. Absolutely closed loop (isolated) system (ACS) is a variety of coordinates system in which any object or objects’ system, maximum generally and universal, can be presented, described and researched. It does not exist as a real system. This is an abstract general reference system, similar to many other coordinates systems. For the sake of researches the conception of ACS is of an epistemological, in particular, methodological, and not an ontological character.
4. Conventionally closed system (CCS) – is a system, while studying which, discussed above external interactions can be ignored and certain admissions can be allowed. The influence of negligible interactions (admissions) can be insignificant or rather significant, but it doesn’t have a determinative importance for the solving of a certain problem. Sometimes the range of significant for certain problem factors couldn’t be possibly taken into account for different technical reasons. In such cases we can speak about different variants of CCS – static and probabilistic system. Practically all closed systems, strictly saying, are opened systems or RCS. If adding to CCS unaccounted admissions we can get ACS. The indication RCS we will use in cases when not counting certain influencing factors, which are insignificant in concrete problem and the indication Closed System (CS) we’ll use in all other cases. The concept of CCS (conventionally closes system), with no special indication or definition, is intuitively used in an overwhelming majority of qualitative practical tasks. The data necessary for calculating some value in combination with this value will represent CCS. In other words CCS is a complex of what is “given” and what “is required to be solved”. Any mathematical equation or grammatical sentence are the models of CCS (p.p. 4.2; 4.4).
5. Part of ACS – is any volunteer element of ACS (object, system etc.), having certain features and characteristics, that differ it from other elements of this ACS.
6. Object and antiobject (system and antisystem) are two equal and opposite parts of ACS.
7. Environment – is an antiobject (antisystem) of the object, not having any features of integrity or strictly defined quality and accurately measured and described parts, the variants of environment could be, for example, physical system with distributed parameters and environment of living beings. The ambience of existence of the enterprise, companies, some group. The speech goes not about spatial geometric ambience, but about ambience of the action. Environment creates, preserves, changes, destroys and obliterates a corresponding object. Object is the function of the environment.
8. Dividing zone is a conventional attribute of interaction of the object and the environment that determines character and value of interaction’s increase/decrease. It is characterized by one indicator; the value of resistance to the interaction. Depending on the type or nature of an object and environment it can be of a different content. In a general case resistance is everything that impedes or lessens system parts’ interaction.
In a closed system dividing zone structurally belongs to the objects and environments contained in it, while functionally it is segregated into a separate conception. Real objects and systems with allocated parameters (e.g. continuums) are as if included into the object or the environment, i.e. are their parts. The conception Dividing zone is necessary for the qualitative description and interaction’s research. In physical and technical applications it can be an electrical, pneumatic or hydraulic resistance, heat insulation, electromagnetic radiation’s, X-ray’s or radiation’s protection. In the system human being – environment the resistance can be presented by the clothes, dwelling, protection or life sustenance means etc.
9. State of the object (C) – quantitative and qualitative, active and passive characteristic of an object, characteristic, defining potential object possibility to influence the other parts of ACS. The state appears as complex of features, which are disclosing in the result of interaction of the object with the set of chosen etalon objects. The state unifies the notions of energy, matter, field, information, entropy and other sources of influence. Objects with different complexes of features have different states. In abstract limit similar state of two or more objects (including the location in space) means the one state not a similar, but the same state of the object.
State can be an absolute and relative. Absolute state is a possibility of object as a part of ACS to change the whole rest part of ACS. Relative state is a possibility to change any voluntary part of certain ACS. At the limit the state of the object in relation to itself equals zero or, in other words, object couldn’t interact with itself. At the same time separate object’s parts due to the difference in states will interact. Examples: volume of a liquid of gas under pressure, electrical charge with a particular potential difference, quantity of energy, heat, particular substance etc.; where pressure and potential difference is an active part of a state, while volume of a liquid of gas , quantity of charge – a passive state.
10. Changing of the state – is a process of forming new, different from the previous state. Particular cases of the notions of changing and preservation are states of motion and calm. Examples: change of temperature, pressure, charge, mass, energy, structure, position in space, state of a human being, society, ideology etc. For example, action of a mechanical force, heating, metabolism, psychological effect, information’s influence, abrasive situation etc.
11. Preservation, balance, constancy, stability of state etc – the notion opposite (and paired) to changing. At the limit an absolute preservation can be possibly only within ACS, approximate preservation can be within RCS. Interaction and balance, as well as state, can also be absolute and relative (or particular).
12. Action is the reason of changing of the state. E.g. mechanical force action, heating, metabolism, psychological impact, information's action, abrasive force etc.
13. Counteraction is a reversed direction action, the paired and opposite notion to the action (straight and reverse directions are relative).
14. Interaction is a reason of simultaneous mutual changing of two or more connected parts of CS or whole actions and counteractions, which are equal in size and opposite in directions. Actions and interactions can differ in nature, kinds, sizes, directions etc; its quantity is endless, as well as number of kinds of existing objects and systems.
15. Level of object’s state (U) – level of quantitative potential possibility of interconnection of an object and the other object, objects or environment, based on the aggregate of characteristics of interacting states, that determines its features, activity degree and ability to interact in a definite way. Level is an active type of the state. It can be absolute (in relation to ASC) and relational (related to some objects). Examples: pressure, temperature, potential difference, voltage, solution’s concentration, mechanical force, acoustical pressure etc.
16. Intensity of interaction (interaction’s current) (I) – is a real value of change of interacting objects (environment) per unit of time under the given resistance of the dividing zone. Examples: voltage, liquid consumption, velocity of travel, information rate, diffusion intensity, speed of heat transfer and of magnetic and radiation currents, electrical and hydraulic resistance, heat insulation, friction force, intensity of information rate, changes of ideology and in states of a human being or a society.7
17. Resistance (breaking) of interaction (R) is a function of dividing zone, which is expressed in quantitative measure of breaking process of certain object interaction in ACS. Examples: electrical and hydraulic resistance, heat insulation, friction power, protection from physical field’s action, effectiveness of a human being’s protection from the hostile environment etc.
18. Power (N) is a result of a common action of all quantitative and qualitative constituent parts of interaction process determined as a product of intensity (I) and level (U) or quality of change in a state per unit of time. Examples: power of engine, fluid’s current power, power of gas, voltage.
19. Level of equilibrium (Rº) – is a value reverse to the interaction’s power characterizing a degree of steadiness, constancy, conservation, invariability, relative closeness of the interacting objects or systems. Examples of a high equilibrium level: inertial system, heat equilibrium system, mechanical mutually balanced forces system, “absolute” state of a human being (cl. 2.8), steady balance of military, political, economical and other systems, any closed system.
The above-mentioned quantitative conceptions (indicated by a letter symbols) are connected with the following relations.
1. Action is equal to counteraction and is contrary directed.
2. The external state of the system during the interaction of its parts is invariable. This thesis we can interpret as a law of conservation of state. It is the establishment of the obvious fact that the function parts cannot be put on and out at will.
3. Changing the interacting objects is aimed to close the relative levels of their states: ΔU12 > 0, where ΔU12 is the difference between the states of the objects О1 and О2.
4. The intensity of the interaction is increasing with the increasing of the level of states and is minuend with the growing up of the resistance of the dividing zone
|I = U /R.||(1)|
5. The power of interaction of the objects increases with the increasing of the relative level of their states and the intensity of interaction
|N = I ·U.||(2)|
6. Change of state of the interacting objects is proportional to the power and duration of the interaction
7. The major conceptions are also connected with the following evident derived relationships
It is quite evident that the presented above relationships generalize many known particular relationships of many natural science’s applications, thus providing them with a maximal general content that characterizes any object of research. The sense of such a generalization is illustrated by the example of research of such distant conceptions as health, happiness, religion (p.p. 2.7; 2.8; 2.9).
Depending of the structure of the CS the process of interaction could be as follows:
1. The ACS consists of the object and anti-object as structures with the concentrated parameters without a dividing zone.
As there is no resistance the process of interaction in accordance with the dependence (1) occurs immediately, the structures object and anti-object annihilate and disappear. Their state transforms into another form and the other CS. The initial CS disappears.
2. The CS consists of the object and anti-object as structures with the concentrated parameters and the dividing zone.
The interaction proceeds in a definite period of time with the gradual damping of state changing. The deceleration of the process occurs at the expense of the dividing zone. The object and the anti-object uniformly changes at once and in the whole size (state).
3. The CS consists of the object and the anti-object as a system with distributed parameters without dividing zone.
The interaction proceeds in a definite period of time with the gradual damping and the state changing. The change of the objects’ state occurs successive by the layers with the lagging of changes in the direction opposite to the border of the objects dividing. The function of the dividing zone is implemented by the parts and the structure of the object and anti-object. For the case of homogeneous isotropic structures of the object and anti-object this process is explored rather good within the theory of continuous medium where the example are the heat and the diffusion process based on the corresponding equation in the quotient derivatives.
For the oscillating processes in the corresponding environments the description is made with the help of the wave equation.
4. The CS consists of the object with concentrated parameters and the anti-object with the distributed parameters (environment) without the dividing zone.
The interaction proceeds in a definite period of time with the gradual damping because of realization of function braking by the environment. The object is changed uniformly; the environment is changed successively and by layers, with lagging as it is moving off the object.
5. The CS consists of the object with the concentrated parameters and the anti-object with the distributed parameters and the dividing zone.
The interaction proceeds generally by the scheme 4, but the braking is caused by the dividing zone and the environment.
6. The CS consists of the object and the anti-object with the distributed parameters and the dividing zone. The interaction process is braking by the layer changing of the object and the environment and the changes of the dividing zone.
Those most simple models of the CS are repeatedly complicated when investigated and need to be separately overviewed for the precise description.
The conditional character of apportionment of the elementary CS that is sufficient and justified within the one problem, could be insufficient within the more complicated problems. If the interaction proceeds in some period of time (not immediately) it means that the interaction of the objects proceeds through some material dividing zone, because only it could brake the interaction process. In the interaction process the state of the dividing zone is changed relatively to the environment and the second interaction between the dividing zone and the environment appears (the environment could include two objects and some unspecified parts of the ACS). The appearance of the second interaction means that the main interaction is changed and the law of conservation of state has to take into account three objects instead of two.
At that time the main flow of the interaction will be decreasing and the so-called dissipation will occur to the dividing zone, with the change of its state. In a particular case within the interaction of two electric charges through the conductor of some resistance or of two bodies with the different temperature through the heat conducting layer the part of the electric current and the heat flow energy would be lost while beating up of the conductor or a heat insulator and their environments.
So, the any interaction that proceeds with the ultimate speed is the dissipation process that proceeds in the system consisting of three objects, where the two of them are the main and the third and its environment are the participants of the second process, which is dissipative to the main. The intensity of the second process is appreciably smaller than that of the main.
These simplest models of CS get iteratively complicated and require a separate research for their exact description.
Well researched physical and technical objects and their processes’ parameters are taken of perforce as examples illustrating the above-mentioned conceptions. Similar conceptions for more complex social, economical, industrial and other objects and systems have not been established yet; at present time it is possible to name only separate constitutive parts of integral conceptions.
Such balanced states of live organisms’ separate systems such as health (cl.2.8) and the life process itself can be named as the exclusions. In a particular case, the object being human being, a dynamic equilibrium state of a human being’s psychological and emotional sphere called state of happiness can also be mentioned (see cl.2.7).
As far as we know, conception of happiness and health are determined in this work as balanced states for the first time and have not found scientific circles’ acceptance yet. As this provides a good illustration of a sense and meaning of the proposed conceptions’ system in a general context, reference to these examples can be considered to be legitimate.
The above mentioned conceptions have been produced by the life itself, as well as by the existence of rational beings long before appearance of the first scientists. The fact that these essential and fundamental conceptions harmonize with the definitions of CCS is indicative of its reasonability and significance.
It should be mentioned that the concept of existence itself is also illustrative of a particular set of more or less constant characteristics of the object; this is only possible when the object is situated in a more or less constant environment. Interaction between a constant state and a constant environment is one of the conditions of a dynamic balance between the object and the environment. While such a balance of the whole object assumes a more broad interaction with interval’s change than a balance of a particular part of the object.
It’s significant, that dividing CS to certain object, antiobject and dividing zone is made conditionally with the purpose of dividing functions between them to get the simplicity and convenience of examination. It’s accepted that object and antiobject have only active functions (levels) and dividing zone has only passive function (resistance). In real systems each elementary part of CS has active characteristics (levels) and passive (resistance) characteristics; and it appears as a system with distributive parameters. But such attitude towards problem can be still discussed. According to the rules of TCS apparatus development the nature of studied objects can be absolutely different. That’s why the real nature of discussed above notions also can be different. In simple physics problems their nature is strictly defined and studied. Revelation and studying of these notions for the complex systems is rather difficult task at the moment.
Let’s consider some cases of discussed notions as for the physic and technical problems.
State can be presented by the volume of liquid or gas, electric charge, path interval, quantity of energy, heat etc.
Level (U) (levels difference ΔU)) can be presented by pressure overfall of liquid or gas, difference of electric potentials, mechanical force, acoustic pressure etc.
The function if dividing zone can be presented by hydroline, electricity cable, indicator travel, thermal protection etc.
Resistance (R) appears as hydro-, pneumonic or electric resistance, and friction force, thermal protection abilities, protection from physic fields.
Intension (I) is interpreted as movement speed, current strength, productivity of hydro-, pneumonic lines, intensity of heat, magnetic, radiation streams etc.
Such common notions haven’t been worked out yet for the description and studying of complex systems. That’s why during this exposition we will use complex notions, worked out for simple physics and technical problems. Generally speaking, from the point of possibility of systems description by means worked out for other problems, complex systems are identical to those, described above. The process of working out own immanent notions, which are used in solving physic problems, is of the same level of complexity. By the way, the level of complexity of object can be considered as an indicator of it’s remoteness from customary measuring units system. And from the positions of own common notions, the object is simple and correspond to other notions of TCS.
Let’s consider examples of notional apparatus of TCS using well-known simple physic, technical, domestic, biological notions and terms in cases of biosocial system “human-environment”.
So, the object is human and antiobject is environment.
Human’s state is a structure and composition of his systems and subsystems complex of all levels, their relations, functions and characteristics, metabolism, mass, temperature, volume, form etc.
State of environment is physic, chemical and biological characteristics; it’s dynamics, sources of influences on human of all kinds including social surrounding.
Preservation of human state is a preservation of all systems, subsystems and their functions and preservation of dynamic balance in general between human and environment.
Changing of human state is changing of any systems, subsystems and their functions, metabolism etc.
Action is an influence of changing environment on a human as for the nutrition, physical loads, temperature, gas environment, physic fields, actions of other biosystems, changing of social surrounding etc.
Counteraction of human and environment is a compensation of harmful factors and creating of comfortable conditions.
Level of state is the productive possibilities, human activity aimed at saving own surrounding environment (knowledge, capacity for work, desires etc.)
Dividing zone may include separate elements of surrounding environment: clothes, dwellings, instruments and means of production, sport equipment, medicals, and systems of nutrition etc (all factors, which prevent the negative influence of changing environment).
As for the psychological aspect of the state and especially system of values of a person, the dividing zone can be presented by different kinds of psychological defenses, including an artificial change of values system.
Resistance is a complex of characteristics of elements of dividing zone (thermal conductivity of clothes, comfortability of dwelling, and perfection of methods and means of production, rationality and universality of sport equipment, healthy way of life etc.)
Intensity is an activity and productive work of human being, velocity of biological and social evolution (velocity of increasing of unit weight of brains, square cerebral cortex, changing of muscle bulk, structure and functions of system etc). In general it is a velocity of adaptation to changing environment.
Power is a combined influence of indicators and elements of level and intensity.
It is important to admit that such definition of parameters of human RCS using well-known notions is unavoidably inaccurate and permits only denoting and approximate defining of the core of these notions.
It should also be mentioned that division of CS into object, anti-object and dividing zone is conventional; the aim of such a division is to clearly separate their functions in order to simplify and provide convenience to this research. It has been assumed that the object, anti-object possess only active function (level), while dividing zone possesses only passive function (resistance). In real systems any elementary part of CS possesses both activity (i.e. level) feature and passivity feature (i.e. resistance) and is a system with distributed parameters. Though such a goal’s set is a subject of further researches. According to the conditions of elaboration of definitions of TCS the objects of research can be of any the nature. Therefore the conceptions of TCS can also be of any the nature. In the simplest problems of physics their nature is clearly defined and researched in detail. To reveal and to study these conceptions relating to complicated complex systems at a present state of TCS’s development is a difficult task.
At the same time apparently particular generally accepted technical and industrial conceptions and terms correlated with the corresponding terms of CCS exist. For example: productivity (intensity), value, capacity (state), technical, technological and personnel potential (level), all types of supply including informational (resistance), development, progress (changes).
General intensity of industrial process (productivity) can be reviewed as a sum of all material, financial, informational, personnel and power-producing currents.