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1.1 The main notions of TCS

V. I. Melnikov

Isomorphism and homomorphism of different objects and systems of reality and their relations gave an opportunity for working out a great deal of different interdisciplinary systematical sciences and systematical theories in the recent decades; the beginning of which begins from Bogdanov “Tektology” and Bertalanfe “Common Theory of Systems” and further modifications of such native scientists as Blauberg, Yudin, Shchedrovitskiy, Uemov, Sadovskiy, Urmancev as well as foreign scientists such as Messarovich, Zade, Akoff, Klir, Kalman.

Not being a substitution of special systematical theories and conceptions (such as cybernetics, informatics etc.), which deals with analysis and synthesis of certain special systems, these theories form common methodological principles of systematical research.

As the result the new paradigm of philosophy has formed; it essentially influences solving of many practical problems in particular the appearance of new theories and conceptions. Nowadays branchy classification schemes of different systems are developed, which describes systems’ conceptual apparatus and specific terminology.

Special attention is paid to real open systems (in particular nonequilibrium systems), which is exchanging matter, energy and information with the surrounding. The quantity of systems studied by the scientists in relation to their nature, structure, character, and their internal and external interactions is more than dozens, not speaking about variants of systems met in practice. Used in practice means of description have in their base the idea of integrity (of object, complex and system); or only formal classification; or functional characteristics (open, closed, one-side open, dirigible, self-organizing etc).

Such situation suggests the absence of common integrative principle of description, analysis, synthesis and appraisal. Stayed common principles can be reached by maximum extrapolation of closed system method, which is used in solving of almost all quantitative problems in the different spheres of knowledge. For example, the problems on finding out the force, mass, different flows are solved with the help of the method of closed system.

Increased number of considered characteristics can raise the accuracy and common effectiveness of problems solving. In case of possible unlimited logical calculation of all considered characteristics of studied objects and systems meaning of such notions as “reality” and “actuality” the accuracy and plentitude of problems solving will be an ideal. And the whole totality of external factors influencing the object together with the Object will turn to absolutely closed system (ACS).

Got in such way ACS can serve as integrative (abstract) and universal principle for all studied objects and systems considering presence of the following properties and features:

1. Any real or abstract open system or studied object can be lead to ACS, if it is connected with all external influencing factors.

2. All open systems are different from one another when all ACS are the same (identical or invariant). Processes of any nature run identically in all ACS.

3. ACS is common consistent system of coordinates used for description and solving any problem with amendments of this or that admissions (in case of deviation form strict solving process).

4. Problem of any type can be solved with the help of ACS.

5. ACS is the most common system, others systems are just private cases.

6. ACS is the most symmetric system (the ideal symmetry).

Thus ACS occupies a separate place among all possible systems and offers the above-listed advantages unlike other systems.